Search for a project

Discover more about the EPSRC Centres for Doctoral Training at the University
of Leeds


EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Fluid Dynamics

Predicting spray carry over through computational modelling

Lead Academic Supervisor

Nik Kapur (Mechanical Engineering)

Lead Industrial Supervisor

Valeria Lamelas, Unilever


Amirul Khan (Civil Engineering)


Reacting Flows, Mixing and SafetyParticulate Flows, Sediments and Rheology


Spraying is ubiquitous and finds application within delivery of materials (e.g. paints, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, personal-care products) to surfaces (e.g. crops, fabrics, skin). The spraying process is complex and includes physics around (i) a breakup of a (formulated) liquid from a continuous stream on leaving the spray-nozzle into, (ii) discrete droplets (the spray), (iii) evaporation of propellant (iv) transport of droplet/particles to surfaces and (v) impact, adhesion or bounce of droplets/particulate into the evolving flow that carries material away from the surface. This is illustrated in figure 1.



Figure 1: Rich picture describing particle transport to a surface 

A modelling approach is proposed in which to better understand the controlling parameters that describe the fate of droplets/particles sprayed onto surfaces. This will focus on personal care products where carryover of particulates into the air can cause respiratory discomfort. A particular feature of this work is that the spray is a complex formulated product and at the point of impact will be a mix of particulates and oils that form the functional coating, with the carrier fluid responsible for the propellant having evaporated from the material. In addition, the shape of the surface to which the spray is directed is relatively complex and will also be responsible for how the airflow (and thus the transport) evolves.